Concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid are reduced in maternal liver, adipose, and heart in rats fed high-fat diets without docosahexaenoic acid throughout pregnancy
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Fetal accretion for DHA is high during late pregnancy due to the brain growth spurt. Prior evidence suggests that DHA is mobilized from maternal liver and adipose to meet fetal accretion and physiological requirements. However, changes in the DHA levels of various maternal tissues throughout pregnancy and into lactation of mothers on diets with and without dietary DHA, and with a background dietary fatty acid profile that resembles human intake has not been examined. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a total western diet with (TWD + ) or without DHA (TWD-) along with a commercial rodent chow control (Chow) throughout pregnancy and postpartum. The fatty acid compositions of adipose, brain, heart, liver, erythrocytes, and plasma were determined before pregnancy, at 15 and 20 days of pregnancy, and 7 days postpartum. The placenta, fetuses, and pups were also examined when available. Maternal DHA concentrations were increased in plasma at 20 days pregnancy in all the diets with TWD + > Chow > TWD-. Maternal DHA concentrations in the TWD- group were lower in adipose throughout pregnancy as compared with the other diets. At postpartum, DHA concentrations decreased below baseline levels in the heart of the TWD- and Chow dams and the liver of the TWD- dams. Whole body DHA concentrations of the fetuses did not differ but there was evidence of decreased DHA in the whole body and tissues of the TWD- and Chow 7d old pups. In conclusion, it appears that in this rodent model of pregnancy, maternal adaptations were made to meet fetal DHA requirements, but they may compromise maternal DHA status and the ability to deliver DHA during lactation.
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Daniel M. Lamontagne-Kam, Alan Chalil, Juan Jose Aristizabal Henao, Sam J. Hogenhout, Ken Stark (2018). Concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid are reduced in maternal liver, adipose, and heart in rats fed high-fat diets without docosahexaenoic acid throughout pregnancy. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/14101
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