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dc.contributor.authorKim, Min Sik
dc.contributor.authorPiggott, Emily
dc.contributor.authorZrinyi, Nick
dc.contributor.authorLee, Changha
dc.contributor.authorPham, Anh Le-Tuan 18:04:08 (GMT) 18:04:08 (GMT)
dc.descriptionThe final publication is available at Elsevier via © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
dc.description.abstractChlorendic acid (CA) is a recalcitrant groundwater contaminant for which an effective treatment technology does not currently exist. In this study, a series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the treatment of CA by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under various water chemistry conditions. It was observed that CA was removed by ZVI via both adsorption and degradation, with the degradation rate being proportional to the fraction of CA adsorbed onto ZVI. The rate of CA degradation decreased as pH increased, presumably due to the passivation of ZVI and diminishing CA adsorption. Chloride (Cl−) did not appreciably affect CA adsorption and degradation, while sulfate (SO42−) significantly inhibited both processes because SO42− competed with CA for ZVI adsorptive sites. The rate of CA degradation was significantly accelerated by ZVI-associated Fe(II). Nine byproducts of CA transformation were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The formation and subsequent degradation of these products revealed that the transformation of CA by ZVI occurred via a step-wise reductive dechlorination pathway. Overall, this study suggests that ZVI may be effective at remediating CA-contaminated sites.en
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding for this research was provided by Ontario Centres of Excellence (VIP1 Grant #27828), and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Discovery Grant #2015-04850).en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectchlorendic aciden
dc.subjectzero-valent ironen
dc.subjectreductive dechlorinationen
dc.subjecthazardous wasteen
dc.titleReduction of chlorendic acid by zero-valent iron: Kinetics, products, and pathwaysen
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKim MS, Piggott E, Zrinyi N, Lee C, Le-Tuan Pham A, Reduction of Chlorendic Acid by Zero-Valent Iron: Kinetics, Products, and Pathways, Journal of Hazardous Materials (2019), doi:
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Engineeringen
uws.contributor.affiliation2Civil and Environmental Engineeringen

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